For Authors of World Medical & Health Policy


Philosophy of World Medical & Health Policy

For more information, please see World Medical & Health Policy Aims and Scope page.

Who Can Submit?

Anyone may submit an original article to be considered for publication in World Medical & Health Policy provided he or she owns the copyright to the work being submitted or is authorized by the copyright owner or owners to submit the article. Authors are the initial owners of the copyrights to their works (an exception in the non-academic world to this might exist if the authors have, as a condition of employment, agreed to transfer copyright to their employer).

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General Submission Rules (adapted from the ICMJE: www.icmje.org)

Research articles and conceptual or modeling studies should adhere to the following outline:

1. The Title Page:

Concise manuscript titles are easier. Authors should include all information in the title that will make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific.

Authors' names and institutional affiliations: each author's highest academic degree(s)

The name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.

Disclaimers, if any.

2. Abstract (150 words) should mirror the manuscript and contain the similar headings such as purpose, introduction, methods, results, discussions and conclusions. Conclusions should emphasize new and important aspects of the study, observations and findings in sufficient depth to justify the author’s proposed polices or clinical standards. Articles on clinical trials should contain abstracts that include the items that the CONSORT group has identified as essential (http://www.consort-statement.org/?=1190). Authors of international manuscripts should submit two abstracts:

a. English version

b. Native language

It is essential both versions provide identical information.

3. Acknowledgments include any applicable funding sources, institutional releases, recognition of prior publication or presentation, and any conflict of interests. Contact information for corresponding authors. The name, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript (the "corresponding author;" this author may or may not be the "guarantor" for the integrity of the study). The corresponding author should indicate clearly whether his or her e-mail address can be published.

The name and address of the author to whom requests for reprints should be addressed or a statement that reprints are not available from the authors.

Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these.

4. Introduction or Background (either is acceptable)

Should provide a context for the study (that is, the nature of the problem addressed and its significance). State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation; the research objective is often more sharply focused when stated as a question. Provide only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

5. Materials and Methods

Will include any applicable reviews by intramural research boards if human or animal test subjects were used in the research. The Methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section.

a. Selection and Description of Participants (subjects)

Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Because the relevance of such variables as age and sex to the object of research is not always clear, authors should explain their use when they are included in a study report-for example, authors should explain why only participants of certain ages were included or why women were excluded. The guiding principle should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. When authors use such variables as race or ethnicity, they should define how they measured these variables and justify their relevance.

Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

b. Statistics

Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used.

6. Results

Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal.

When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as "random" (which implies a randomizing device), "normal," "significant," "correlations," and "sample."

Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by such variables as age and sex should be included.

7. Discussion

Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section. For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by summarizing briefly the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.

8. Conclusions and Policy Implications

This is a medical policy Journal. The authors are strongly encouraged to establish a relationship between their findings and policy relevant to the national and international journal readership. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. In particular, avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses or ideas when warranted, but label them clearly as such. Medical and health policies should be supported by the data presented and discussed. Any policies based on speculations or untested premises should be clearly identified

9. References and Literature Citations

Although references to review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately. Readers should therefore be provided with direct references to original research sources whenever possible. On the other hand, extensive lists of references to original work on a topic can use excessive space on the printed page. Small numbers of references to key original papers often serve as well as more exhaustive lists, particularly since references can now be added to the electronic version of published papers, and since electronic literature searching allows readers to retrieve published literature efficiently.

Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as "in press" or "forthcoming"; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source.

Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication.

Some but not all journals check the accuracy of all reference citations; thus, citation errors sometimes appear in the published version of articles. To minimize such errors, verify references against the original documents. Authors are responsible for checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except in the context of referring to the retraction. For articles published in journals indexed in MEDLINE, the ICMJE considers PubMed the authoritative source for information about retractions. Authors can identify retracted articles in MEDLINE by using the following search term, where pt in square brackets stands for publication type: Retracted publication [pt] in PubMed.

10. Reference Style and Format

The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the NLM for its databases. Authors should consult NLM's Citing Medicine for information on its recommended formats for a variety of reference types.

References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the Journals database, created and maintained by the NLM. Journals vary on whether they ask authors to cite electronic references within parentheses in the text or in numbered references following the text. Authors should consult with the journal to which they plan to submit their work.

Authors must be sure to:

  1. Include their degree and institutional affiliation.
  2. Be aware and adhere to plagarism guidelines.
  3. Include a review by intramural research boards if human or animal test subjects were used in the research (in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript).
  4. Acknowledge all funding sources and applicable institutional releases (in the acknowledgments section of the submission process).
  5. Credit any presentation or prior publication of materials utilized in the submitted manuscript (in the acknowledgments section of the submission process).
  6. Disclose any conflict of interest (in the acknowledgments section of the submission process). These include, but are not limited to:
  • Any existing financial or personal interests with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript
  • Any financial or personal interests with any company or organization sponsoring the research reported in the submitted manuscript
  • Financial or personal interests include: a current grant, contract or subcontract, or consulting agreement with a company; employment with the company/organization; acting as an expert witness on behalf of a company/organization; and holding stocks or shares in a company.

Submitted articles cannot have been previously published, nor be forthcoming in an archival journal or book (print or electronic). Please note: "publication" in a working-paper series does not constitute prior publication. In addition, by submitting material to World Medical & Health Policy, the author is stipulating that the material is not currently under review at another journal (electronic or print) and that he or she will not submit the material to another journal (electronic or print) until the completion of the editorial decision process at World Medical & Health Policy. If you have concerns about the submission terms for World Medical & Health Policy, please contact the editors.

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Formatting Requirements

World Medical & Health Policy has no general rules about the formatting of articles upon initial submission. There are, however, specific formatting guidelines for the final manuscript. Please see the journal's Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines.

It is understood that the current state of technology of Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) is such that there are no, and can be no, guarantees that documents in PDF will work perfectly with all possible hardware and software configurations that readers may have.

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Copyright and Open Access Permissions

As further described in our submission agreement, in consideration for publication of the article, the authors assign to Policy Studies Organization all copyright in the article, subject to the expansive personal-use exceptions described below.

Attribution and Usage Policies

Reproduction, posting, transmission or other distribution or use of the article or any material therein, in any medium as permitted by a personal-use exemption or by written agreement of Policy Studies Organization, requires credit to Policy Studies Organization as copyright holder (e.g., Policy Studies Organization © 2010).

Personal-use Exceptions

The following uses are always permitted to the author(s) and do not require further permission from Policy Studies Organization provided the author does not alter the format or content of the articles, including the copyright notification:

  • Posting of the article on the author(s) personal website, provided that the website is non-commercial;
  • Posting of the article on the internet as part of a non-commercial open access institutional repository or other non-commercial open access publication site affiliated with the author(s)'s place of employment (e.g., a Phrenology professor at the University of Southern North Dakota can have her article appear in the University of Southern North Dakota's Department of Phrenology online publication series);
  • In compliance with the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy, all articles that specify NIH funding during the submission process will be automatically deposited by bepress into PubMedCentral, where they shall be made freely available 12 months after the official date of publication.
  • Posting of the article on a non-commercial course website for a course being taught by the author at the university or college employing the author; and
  • Storage and back-up of the article on the author's computer(s) and digital media (e.g., diskettes, back-up servers, Zip disks, etc.), provided that the article stored on these computers and media is not readily accessible by persons other than the author(s).

People seeking an exception, or who have questions about use, should contact Policy Studies Commons at .

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