Schedule Copyright (c) 2010 Policy Studies Organization All rights reserved. Recent Events in Schedule en-us Wed, 28 Apr 2023 16:38:28 PDT 3600 Lunch Break Fri, 04 Dec 2023 12:00:00 PST Evidence Based Policy: A Global Challenge to Medicine in an Era of Mistrust Fri, 04 Dec 2023 10:00:00 PST Chair: Arnauld Nicogossian, George Mason University Arnauld Nicogossian Communicating the Knowledge Abstract: Policy decisions should be consistent with knowledge base. Communicating the evidence is one of the most important duty of the academic and practicing professionals. Without  the evidence and candor there cannot be transparency and public trust. Poor communication practices can lead to confusion, helplessness, anger, civil disobedience and political backlash. The example of  vaccination for seasonal and pandemic influenza will be discussed in the context of the bioethics, policy and politics. Naoru Koizumi Use of Technology to Design Better Health Policies Abstract: GIS is becoming increasingly popular in health care research in recent years. Typical GIS-based studies include an analysis such as "hot-spot" analysis that detects clusters of an infectious disease, simulation of a disease spread, or demand & supply analysis that identifies geographical areas with over- / under- utilization of services improving decision making in outcomes. Jessica Heineman-Pieper Politics in Health Sciences & Policy Abstract: The complexity of system dynamics in the health care sector enables greater scope for politics through the collective interplay of unconscious biases, deliberate agendas, and systemic tendencies. In the international context, these dynamics operate at the level of whole world-views and are compounded by power asymmetries that, among other things, have skewed important issues in global public health policy for less powerful countries towards US economic interests rather than the true wellbeing of those countries' citizens. Public trust as well as domestic and global public health can benefit from both recognizing the operation of power and influence in public health science and policy and also mitigating these forces by reinstating core public health commitments. Arnauld Nicogossian A Brief History of Cosmic Expansion and Acceleration Fri, 04 Dec 2023 20:15:00 PST The lectures, which are the centerpiece of all Philosophical Society of Washington meetings, are selected to appeal to those with a general interest in science and do not require a specialized knowledge of the subject. They always contain information that is current, explanations that are understandable and a few controversial issues to be challenged by a critical listener. The series is designed as much as possible to include a wide range of disciplines. Adam Riess Policy in Science and Engineering Graduate Education: Building Boundary Spanning Competence Fri, 04 Dec 2023 14:00:00 PST Chair: Guillermo De Los Reyes, University of Houston Abstract: As part of an IGERT grant entitled Nitrogren Systems: Policy-oriented Research and Education a major effort was made at Washington State University to supplement the science and engineering training being provided to a select group of doctoral students with appropriate (but not overly burdensome) policy process training. The major elements of this training include the following: A dynamic modeling course featuring nitrogen cycling phenomena and the interaction of policy choices with stakeholder reactions by those affected by statutory and regulatory measures taken by federal, state or local government. A policy studio course (single course taken in the second semester of the 2-year IGERT training sequence) in which policy process instruction, selected guest speakers, and week-long visit to Wash. DC for meetings with key actors related to each student's dissertation topic. A summer policy-oriented IGERT-funded internship with a major laboratory, public agency, legislative committee or advocacy group toward the end of coursework accomplishment. Inclusion of a chapter devoted to the public policy dimension of the NSPIRE student's dissertation. Nicholas P. Lovrich Futures of Science and Technology Policy Fri, 04 Dec 2023 15:00:00 PST Chair: Christopher Gore, Ryerson University Alan J. Tomkins Public Engagement for Informing Science and Technology Policy: What do We Know? And What do We Need to Know? Abstract: This manuscript examines the social science literature relevant to public engagements and identifies the challenges that confront the Obama Administration concerning effective and meaningful public input into science and technology policy, with a focus on nanotechnology. Specifically, when considering "which forms, features, and conditions of public engagement are optimal for what purposes, and why?" we find that, to date, social science has offered relatively little to clarify matters. We call for systematic research to be conducted that defines and empirically connects variations in features and types of public engagement activities to specifically defined variations in effective processes and outcomes. This research will result in new models of public participation that can guide policy-makers, practitioners, and the public in determining what kinds of engagement techniques are optimal for what kinds of purposes. Over time, these models will ensure meaningful public participation that meets the promise of contributing thoughtful societal values and perspectives into the science and technology research enterprise and the federal policies related to science and technology. Liz Johnson Science and Technology Innovation as a Complex Adaptative System: Adapting Policy Typologies and Mechanisms. Abstract: The challenges facing science and technology policy design and implementation can be analyzed in various contextual frameworks but need to account for innovation as a complex adaptive system. The central purpose of this paper is to explicate innovation as a complex adaptive system and explore which policy typology and mechanisms can best meet demands for effective science and technology policy in a global economy. Policy typologies have traditionally fallen into incremental and nonincremental categories but need to be re-conceptualized and adapted to the nature of innovation as a complex adaptive system. Past and current trends of incremental policy design have served to satisfy small slices of innovation system's demands. The intriguing challenges of transformative and convergent technology like nanoscience for example, require an innovative, big-picture approach like nonincrementalism. Indivisibility as a core construct of nonincrementalism, allows for coherent, integrated, and coordinated policy formation to match the demands of national goals of global leadership and a resource-efficient approach to scientific development, advancing society. It is critical to consider the form and function of complex adaptive systems in relation to the form and function of technology and invention as interrelating and motivating elements. Whereby resource scarcity does not always allow for full investment in comprehensive nonincrementalism, incremental policy formation can adapt and incorporate mechanisms and structures from nonincrementalism. A better understanding of innovation as a complex adaptive system and incorporation of policy typology and mechanisms that strengthen and reinforce the natural processes of complexity, will facilitate more effective science and technology policy. Michael Simpson From Clouds to Weeds: Science and Technology Policy With a Different Vision. Abstract: The new Administration, in words and in actions, has described a vision for science and technology (S&T) different from that of the previous Administration. The differences can be heard and seen across many venues, not just in those directly related to S&T. This proposed paper will describe the differences in terms of goals, and current efforts and future challenges to meet those goals. The general differences in vision between the two Administrations have been manifested in a set of characteristic goals, seeking: a) development and announcement of a more explicit strategy for future specific tactical actions; b) greater engagement with and participation by other countries; c) augmented, trusted collaboration of efforts; d) enhanced efficiency and effectiveness with increased use of more objective metrics concomitant with decreased use of subjective metrics; and e) improved monitoring and oversight with more rapid refinement ("course corrections") and increased accountability. A number of current efforts in the S&T venue are underway to try to meet the goals, including: a) decisions and choices more deliberately tied to strategy, including having the right workforce and shared understanding of the mission; b) greater international partnerships in the face of greater competition; c) the on-going struggle to augment collaboration among governmental entities; d) development and consistent use of more objective and meaningful metrics; and e) improved reporting and monitoring of status of efforts to increase accountability, as well as pace and degree of success. To be most effective and efficient, all of these efforts toward improvement should be clearly tied from the strategic vision "in the clouds" to the tactical completion "in the weeds", and should be made enduring. The efforts to date are just beginning. Alan J. Tomkins Increasing Climate Science Literacy: Policymakers, Earth Scientists, Educators, and Students Fri, 04 Dec 2023 13:00:00 PST Chair: Paul Rich, Policy Studies Organization Abstract: The American Meteorological Society Policy Program and Education Program have initiatives to inform policy makers, current and future leaders within the Earth science community, undergraduate faculty and students, and pre-college teachers on the latest in climate science. The Policy Program conducts training workshops, forums, and collaborative projects with scientists and policy makers. The Education Program offers college-level courses in climate science for in-service, pre-college teachers and undergraduate students. Key to the mission of the AMS Policy Program is that, in the broadest sense, society has three proactive policy options for reducing the risks associated with global climate disruption (global warming). We could reduce our greenhouse gas emissions and thereby reduce the amount that climate changes (often called mitigation). We could build our capacity to cope with the climate changes that lie ahead (adaptation). We could deliberately manipulate the Earth system in the hope of counteracting the worst impacts of our emissions--critically, without triggering unintended and unpleasant side-effects (geoengineering). Each of these broad categories (mitigation, adaptation, and geoengineering) encompasses a wide range of more specific policy options and none is mutually exclusive--we could use them together and in a wide range of different combinations. Members of the AMS Policy Program work to help society confront global climate disruption through four core approaches. First, the program trains current and future leaders of the Earth science community on the U.S. Federal policy process so that they can more effectively engage with decision-makers as they consider policy options for addressing climate change. The second approach is to inform policy makers about the latest advances in climate science in order to help them ground their policy choices in the best available scientific knowledge. Third, the Policy Program initiates and leads collaborative projects involving scientists and policy makers designed to ensure that policy development explores a wide range of policy options for dealing with climate change. The fourth approach is research and analysis to develop and examine policy options for reducing the risks of climate change. In working to promote scientific literacy among the public, the AMS Education Program has produced a suite of college-level courses that engage in-service teachers and undergraduate students by investigating relevant topics in Earth science. Developed with major support from NASA, DataStreme Earth's Climate System and AMS Climate Studies place participants in a dynamic learning environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using the most current, real-world environmental data. This allows the course to keep a strong focus on the science, while still addressing many of the societal impacts that draw the attention of today's students. In this way, the courses help prepare teachers and students to become responsible, scientifically-literate participants in discussions of climate science and climate change. Elizabeth Mills Internet Investment After the Crisis Fri, 04 Dec 2023 15:00:00 PST Chair: Guillermo Izabal, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Eric T. Weber A Historical Mandate for Expanding Broadband Internet Infrastructure. Abstract: In this paper I argue that the reasoning the American founders gave for establishing a Post Office and postal roads is also justification today for expanding broadband Internet infrastructure and services to people without coverage. I begin with a discussion of the Constitution and a description of my initial analogy. I then reveal the reasoning that a number of founders used to justify the creation of a Post Office. I also show that even the Confederate States of America found it necessary to set an even postage rate for their own postal service. Finally, I reply to critics of the Post Office for its limitations on competition for certain vital public services and structures and for its job of enabling the transmission of materials that some groups find offensive. My focus throughout is primarily on the matter of infrastructure expansion and the enabling of enhanced delivery of access to broadband Internet. I therefore leave the matter of how exactly services should best be delivered via an expanded infrastructure for a future project. Darrene L. Hackler Technology-Based Economic Development in Cities: The Logic of Broadband Investment in the Post-Boom Era. Abstract: The drivers of economic development have altered over time, but in the post-boom era, talent or human capital and innovation that accompany entrepreneurship and research and development have become central tenets of successful regions. Broadband is the infrastructure that can allow these drivers to thrive more efficiently and effectively--from the telecommunications networks to the information technologies (the hardware and software components) that make broadband possible. State and local governments have begun to embrace technology-based economic development approaches that focus on both the intellectual infrastructure as well as the physical, like broadband with its high quality telecommunications systems and affordable high-speed capacity. The paper develops the logic of broadband investment to support local economic development. Governments must understand the current broadband climate, locally and at the state level. Broadband assessments that inventory broadband capacity and availability are essential to understanding the localities' potential obstacles to investing in and the expansion of broadband. Local governments desiring broadband investment should examine assets and points of leverage within their local economies. However, cities must also understand the intergovernmental context as well as regulatory and legislative preemptions cities may face. Post-boom economic development requires investment in such an underlying and critical asset and facilitation of local broadband actions within the intergovernmental structure can improve the probability of successful local broadband investments. Eric T. Weber Climate Change: The Future of A Crisis Fri, 04 Dec 2023 14:00:00 PST Chair: David Merchant, Policy Studies Organization So Young Kim Behind the Consensus: An Anatomy of Global Public Opinion on Climate Change Policies. Abstract: Climate change has undoubtedly become a topmost concern of policymakers around the world. As revealed in numerous polls and media reports, public awareness of the climate change problem seems to be never higher than now. This paper explores the contour of current global public opinion on climate change issues, based on the three ways climate change is framed and portrayed to the global public-climate change as a risk issue, as an environmental issue, and as a development issue. Key findings include: (i) public information and knowledge about climate change as a scientifically/technologically complex issue strongly correlates with the aggregate level of education across countries, (ii) climate change as a large-scale, global environmental problem relatively removed from everyday experience tends to receive greater attention by citizens of advanced countries, and (iii) public support for climate change policies which are closely tied with the prospects of economic growth is significantly higher in more developed countries. These findings suggest that despite the apparently emerging consensus on climate change as the defining challenge facing our age, the global public remains largely divided in the level of public understanding of the issue and public support for climate change policies. J. Scott Armstrong Forecasting Climate Change: Application of Evidence-Based Forecasting Principles. Abstract: We summarize evidence showing that the global warming alarm movement has more of the character of a political movement than that of a scientific controversy. We then make forecasts of the effects and outcomes of this movement using structured analysis of analogous situations, a method that has been shown to produce accurate forecasts for conflict situations. This paper summarizes the current status of this "structured analogies project." We searched the literature and asked diverse experts to identify phenomena that could be characterized as alarms warning of future disasters that were endorsed by scientists, politicians, and the media, and that were accompanied by calls for strong action. The search yielded 71 possible analogies. We examined objective accounts and screened the list; this yielded 26 analogies that met all of the criteria. We coded each of the 26 analogies accounting for the forecasting procedures used, the accuracy of the forecasts, the types of actions called for, and the effects of actions implemented. This paper provides preliminary findings. The analogous alarms were presented as "scientific," but none were based on scientific forecasting procedures. Every alarming forecast proved to be false; the predicted adverse effects either did not occur or were minor. Costly government policies remained in place long after the predicted disasters failed to materialize. In no case could it be said that the actions taken prevented ill effects. The findings appear to be insensitive to which analogies are included. The structured analogies approach suggests that the current global warming alarm is simply the latest example of a common social phenomenon: an alarm based on unscientific forecasts of a calamity. The global warming alarm will fade, but not before much additional harm is done by governments and individuals making inferior decisions on the basis of unscientific forecasts. So Young Kim Building New Energy Economies: Policy and Business Models Fri, 04 Dec 2023 14:00:00 PST Chair: Guillermo Izabal, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Abstract: The Obama Administration in its first year has done extremely important work on energy policy, including placing intelligent, experienced people in key positions; re-creating federal incentives for renewable energy and investing significant amounts in research and development of clean, renewable energy technologies and practices. At the moment, while we do not know what level of Renewable Energy Standard will be implemented, the fact that our government is close to instituting a RES is tremendously meaningful for expanding renewable energy. But does it do enough to create diverse business models of renewable energy projects that will at the same time catalyze renewed economic development across American rural communities. Community ownership of renewable energy development, and in terms of wind we call it Community Wind, is a triple strategy of increasing renewable energy to address climate change, enhancing local and national energy security and stimulating sustainable, robust economic development in rural communities. We know that development of wind energy in the next decade will take place on rural lands. The most important issue the Administration faces is not merely re-fashioning the American manufacturing economy to make turbines and solar panels and the many other elements that make up the supply chain; neither is it transmission, although this is an investment and project of great magnitude. The greatest policy issue the Administration faces is ownership and business models. The American wind energy industry to date has been developed almost entirely by a handful of large, usually multinational, corporate interests that could utilize the federal Production Tax Credit. When the economy tanked, the wind industry tanked as well. President Obama faces an unprecedented opportunity to introduce policies that will transform the business opportunity of energy production so that ordinary community people - farmers, ranchers, rural landowners - can access incentives and programs to assist them to develop a multitude of distributed renewable generation such as wind farms that will not only power the country but power local economies, as well. Lisa Daniels The STEM Workforce as Problem and Promise Fri, 04 Dec 2023 15:00:00 PST Chair: Jong-on Hahm, National Science Foundation Jay Labov STEM Education and the STEM Workforce: Needs for the 21st Century. Robert V. Hamilton Highly-Skilled Migration: The Case of Foreign Science and Engineering Doctorates at U.S. Universities. Sorina Vlaicu and Connie L. McNeely An Exploration of Institutional Hiring Patterns. Lisa Frehill Retention in Engineering: Discipline, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Innovation. Jong-on Hahm The U.S. STEM Workforce: The Long View and the Short View. Robert V. Hamilton